how dry should cactus soil be

However, you should always allow the soil to dry out completely between watering. Here are a couple of our favorite brands. The ideal cactus potting mix should dry out in a day or two. Over time this will increase the pH of your soil. Fertilizer does benefit most cacti and other succulents, but only when applied at the right time. How to safely and quickly dry cactus soil. This is especially true for the colder seasons when temperatures drop below freezing. Cactus and succulent plants naturally grow in non-organic materials that hold few nutrients. Then, instead of planting in the soil, you will place the cutting horizontally on top of the soil. Putting gravel under the soil cannot replace a drainage hole. This article contains incorrect information, This article is missing information that I need. The soil should be safe and protective of the plants it support. The environment conditions in your home or in the desert are totally different. If it feels wet, it does not need any water at the time. Re: How to safely and quickly dry cactus soil. Always use soil that drains well (see next section on soil). The objective of quick draining soil is to allow the plant to drink water while it is being watered, and for a short while afterwards… then for the soil to dry out as quickly as possible. It’s not difficult to provide exactly what your cactus plants enjoy! A bag of sphagnum peat moss is much more reasonable and is usually sterilized to ensure it’s safe for your plants. The Christmas cactus doesn’t like dry soil and needs to be watered regularly so the soil stays moist. A good cactus potting mixture will also consist of some organic material that makes moisture available to the plant roots when watered but then dries out quickly. If your cactus’s pot doesn’t have one, the water will fill up the bottom of the pot and soak the roots. Asking your local nursery for horticulture sand will get you what you need. Succulents should be watered when the soil is completely dry. Some gardeners prefer to work with coconut coir, which acts very similar to sphagnum peat moss. It’s designed to promote healthy roots and excellent drainage. In winter let the top of the soil dry out before watering. Finding long-fiber sphagnum moss that’s been sterilized is also a challenge, but sometimes is available in bags as a product for bedding in reptile tanks. Post You can also lift the plant out of the pot. The easiest way is to simply stick your finger in the pot. With the right balance, you can mix a soil that’s perfect for your cactus. As a cactus owner, it’s up to you to ensure this. It is an appropriate question to ask as succulent plants like cactus are not designed to grow under the same conditions as African Violets or Rose bushes. To test if your soil is dry, just stick your finger in the top 1 to 2 inches of soil. We all know cacti come from the desert. This mixture boasts working well for both desert and jungle cacti. During the winter, when the plants go dormant, cut watering back to once a month. From time to time, you can give fertilizer, once a month for instance, and maximum one watering out of three. You just need three components: a base, course material, and supplement. For our DIY recipe (using the African violet mix),we recommend 2 parts of coarse material. How to Know if the Soil is Dry. The soil may have a sour or rotten smell, indicating root rot. Another benefit of repotting succulents: these porous pots help dry out the soil and prevent root rot. To make potting soil for the cactus plant you need soil with fast-draining properties with good nutritional values. To test if you now have the perfect soil mix, you should examine how long it takes for the water to seep out. Sometimes completely dry soil will just repel the water and it will drain out the bottom with the soil remaining completely dry. You can buy a special cactus potting mix at your local store near you or mix your own blend by adding some sand and grit to your compost part of the soil to make it grainy and not super compacted. Repotting a wet plant is not only messy, but you risk accidentally damaging the roots in the process. That’s how they store water during drought and dry periods. As an Amazon Associate, I earn from qualifying purchases. Anything relating to Cacti or CactiGuide.com that doesn't fit in another category should be posted under General. Even though cacti are drought-resistant plants, they still need a sufficient supply of water to survive . 2) It important to be well aerated. A good cactus potting soil should comprise of some organic material that retains moisture when the plant is watered but then dries out pretty quickly. Making Your Own Cactus Soil "What type of soil should I plant my cactus in?" Water your Christmas cactus whenever the soil is dry – try not to let the soil dry out completely, but don’t let water stand in the pot or the saucer underneath. Or you can alternatively place your cactus in a pot with sand, some ground charcoal and perlite for it to grow roots. Make sure it gets enough water, especially during spring and summer. So how often do you actually water a succulent or cactus? The best soil mix should hold enough water not more than 30-45 seconds. For our DIY recipe, we recommend using two parts of African violet soil mix. Watering too frequently prevents the soil from hardening around the base of the cactus and causes the soil to loosen. Used to growing in small nooks on trees, the Christmas cactus likes being slightly root bound. They love a refreshing splash, but after that the soil should quickly dry out again and not be prone to staying wet or humid. Your cactus' soil must be well-draining. Let’s start today’s discussion. Cactus soil is simply any potting soil plus a coarse material to aid drainage. If you’re using a container without drainage holes, add enough water to moisten the upper 3 in (7.6 cm) of soil. But using gritty mix soil for cactus is one step closer to getting the soil conditions with good drainage right. The right kind of combination has a superior drainage qualities and quick dry out time when watering. An African violet soil mix usually contains the right ratios of humus, peat moss, and long-fiber moss, plus a coarse material to provide drainage. The answer is yes, but only if you have the right cactus soil. For a homemade cactus soil mix, avoid soil amendments such as vermiculite. They come in various sizes and can be found in any hardware or gardening store. Cacti and succulents want a nutrient-rich soil with moisture control and drainage. But just sticking your cactus in a pot full of sand isn’t a recipe for a healthy plant. Ideally, it should not take more than a minute to drain. So, the perfect potting mix should be like that native habitat of cactus plants—dry, desert-like conditions. It depends on what works for you in your light conditions. Instead, opt for repotting a dry plant and watering it immediately after repotting. More often than not, an underwatered cactus will be easier to save than an overwatered cactus. The water you are giving your plants can actually change the pH of the soil. When referring to parts here, we’re talking about the same size container for each “part”. If you have a water gauge you can use it to determine the soil’s moisture level. This article will teach you how to amend your own cactus and succulent soil and hopefully save some money in the process! 16 posts How to safely and quickly dry cactus soil. Not from the dry desert, like most cacti. If it is dry, go ahead and water. However, if you don’t just … Cactus mixing soil can enhance drainage, and increase evaporation and provides the dry conditions that cactus like. Repotting a wet plant is not only messy, but you risk accidentally damaging the roots in the process. Don’t water on a schedule, but monitor the condition of the plant and dryness of the potting mix to know when to water a cactus. Water your cactus frequently during the growing seasons (spring and summer). Simply dry out the cutting for 1-2 days (again avoiding direct sunlight). 4. The easiest way is to simply stick your finger in the pot. This also needs a light soil, such as a cactus & succulent soil mix. Provided there is no root rot, either transplanting the cactus in dry soil or packing more dirt around it is a solution. A good soil mixture includes components of sand, grit and a composting element. Anytime you find the soil or compost to be dry, thoroughly water. Instead, opt for repotting a dry plant and watering it immediately after repotting. Only watering after it has totally dried out is step two. In winter you should water sparingly – unless you keep the moon cactus at a temperature of over 20 degrees Celsius. As a rule of thumb, you should be letting the soil of your cactus completely dry out before you consider rewatering. 4 posts • Page 1 of 1. In this article, we’ll dive into the soil needs of cacti and what you can do to help them thrive. Inevitably, the newcomer to growing cacti will be faced with this question. Back off watering in the winter until the soil is very dry. If it does feel lighter, wait another day or two and check the weight again. How much to water succulents? The coarse-fiber substrate in which the moon cactus is often offered is not suitable for permanent cultivation. Anything relating to Cacti or CactiGuide.com that doesn't fit in another category should be posted under General. As a rule of thumb, you should be letting the soil of your cactus completely dry out before you consider rewatering. Succulents should be watered generously in the summer as described above, BUT soil should be allowed to completely dry between watering!! Only then (preferably three to five days later – exercise your patience!) Steps 1. That means you have to choose a sunny warm spot for them during the day. Here is more about our approach. You probably have some pots that are too big to lift. For this purpose, dig the ground about 30 cm deep. If the cactus is leaning from the ground, it may be loosely planted in the soil. I have like close to a hundred succulents and this method works great … This breaks up the peaty goodness with a lot of gritty material, but half of it is smaller particles. This also needs a light soil, such as a cactus & succulent soil mix. In addition, a pre-made mix like this has been sterilized, so it’s safe from potential pathogens that could harm the plants in your garden. Having the right soil is absolutely essential for a good succulent garden. What is the difference between cactus soil and potting soil? Putting gravel under the soil cannot replace a drainage hole. Over time this will increase the pH of your soil. This means that your fishbone cactus likes a bit more water than the average cactus. Most cactus should be watered once the soil has completely dried out. When the plant is too dry, it’s health quickly disintegrates. Keep adding water until it flows out from the drainage holes at the bottom of the container. Most places have water that is on the alkaline side, or a very high pH. Here’s what you should know about cactus soil. A tray under the pot is useful in allowing soil to soak up water from the bottom. If a cactus pup doesn’t have roots, you can place it in a dry soil with some gravel for few days and up to a week before it grows some. But using gritty mix soil for cactus is one step closer to getting the soil conditions with good drainage right. So, we’ll add an equal amount of coarse material to the potting soil. The water you are giving your plants can actually change the pH of the soil. Others like to add vermicompost. Normally once every few weeks is adequate. That means you have to choose a sunny warm spot for them during the day. Overwatering and ensuing plant rot is the single most common cause of plant failure. There are so many benefits to gritty mix soil, and they don’t only apply to your cactus plants. Because of this, we recommend keeping cacti compost and fertilizer out of the soil mixture initially. And, as its name implies, it grows in deserts and other arid and extremely dry environments, unlike jungle cactus, which is known to grow in rain forests. You should also water cactus more often during the growing season, which is usually between spring and fall. Benefits of a gritty mix soil. It did surprise me at the store with the excess water weight but there was no one besides a young inexperienced person at the register to discuss it with. The ideal cactus potting mix should dry out in a day or two. If you’re like me, you’ll find that gritty mix soil makes you a happier indoor gardener as well. Depending on your light conditions, a cactus soil may not be enough. A good cactus soil is not too difficult to recognize: it’ll be gritty and have a relatively low percentage of potting soil, or even none at all. Keep near windows and direct sunlight as much as possible. Watch your cactus for signs of shriveling when the soil is too dry. If your cactus starts to shrink, then it most likely needs more water. Another benefit of repotting succulents: these porous pots help dry out the soil and prevent root rot. Some seasons such as summer, are dry, meaning that the cactus absorb a lot of water, leaving the soil dry quickly. These plants also tend to do well even in harsh soil, very little rainfall, and plenty of heat. The Christmas cactus doesn’t like dry soil and needs to be watered regularly so the soil stays moist. The soil should be completely dry. A good rule of thumb is to water once every 10 days. What is cactus Mix? Commercial cactus soils are often peat or composted bark, but I would not recommend this. by Steve-0 » Mon Jan 11, 2021 5:57 pm, Post The right planting mix for cactus plants has superior drainage and will dry out quickly after watering. Before you do anything, you should research your specific type of cactus and what pH it prefers. The bottom line is, if you really want to keep your cactus healthy, you need to invest in good soil with excellent drainage. Now I think enough for the basics. Plus, it’s all-natural, so what’s not to love? Still, if you are not sure then check for drainage and temperature regulation in your soil. Use a watering can or sprayer to soak the soil, leaving the cactus dry. We recommend using less than one part supplements in your potting mix. Specifically, these plants need fast-draining soil. Targeted cultivation of the soil optimizes the quality of the location for the demands of the cacti. Yes, your cactus won’t need a lot of water. How to safely and quickly dry cactus soil. It’s also worth noting that repotting should be done when your soil is dry, so wait until your Christmas Cactus is ready to be watered to repot. Place the remaining cactus section into a clay pot with cactus soil and bury it about 1 inch deep unless there isn't much of the cactus left -- in that case, bury it about halfway. Drainage is much more important than water volume. Fill a small individual clay pot with commercially available cactus soil. How to Know if the Soil is Dry. The soil should be allowed to dry out between two waterings. A good blend is one part perlite, one part coarse sand. The right kind of combination has a superior drainage qualities and quick dry out time when watering. You will be a pro at finding the right type of soil … Espoma Cactus Potting Mix, Natural & Organic Soil... Hoffman 10410 Organic Cactus and Succulent Soil... Espoma Cactus Potting Mix, Natural & Organic Soil for Cactus, Succulent, Palm, and Citrus, 8 qt,... Hoffman 10410 Organic Cactus and Succulent Soil Mix, 10 Quarts, How to Use Blood Meal to Improve Your Soil, String of Pearls: Succulent Stems You’ll Love. Doing this provides both drainage and aeration. Cactus should be watered often and thoroughly during hot weather. What is cactus Mix? It has a balanced pH, good drainage, and includes growing information. can you use the watering can again. In general, cactus soil is designed to mimic a cactus’ natural environment, which is typically dry and nutrient poor. Epic Gardening occasionally links to goods or services offered by vendors to help you find the best products to care for plants. In winter, during the resting phase, the moon cactus prefers temperatures between 16 and 20 degrees Celsius. Dry soil . One of the most important parts of growing succulents like cacti is drainage holes. Texture: Cactus soil is more coarse than the succulent soil. You can apply it to the soil later, when the time is right for your cactus. Orchid bark is another common additive for chunky aeration. Water your cactus once enough that the potting soil is completely saturated and then pour away any excess water. Last update on 2021-01-11 / Affiliate links / Images from Amazon Product Advertising API. A high draining soil is needed. Allow the cactus to dry on the counter for several days until a thick scab forms on the cut sections. But, what if you live up North, in the tropics, or anywhere that’s not full of sun-baked sand? Some of these may be affiliate links, meaning we earn a small commission if items are purchased. It’s not difficult to check if the soil is dry. The easiest option for most gardeners is to use a pre-made potting soil blend designed for African violets. This one was completely out of my experience range because of the red/orange soil and gravel mix in the pot. You always have an option of purchasing the mix or making one on your own. This will only make the water build up by creating an artificial water table. “What kind of soil should I use for my cactus and succulents?” “What soil is best for my succulents in a pot?” “Can I plant my succulents growing indoors in potting soil?” Here’s what you want in a succulent and cactus mix. Read on to find out everything you need to know about the right potting mix for your cactus plant. Healthy roots should be white in most cases. I recommend starting with a sandy loam and adding an equal quantity of a material like grit or perlite. Mist it occasionally for a little added humidity. Sandy-loamy to sandy-gravelly soil; Fresh to moderately dry, without waterlogging; Conventional garden soil contains too many nutrients for frugal cacti. Every plant needs a nutrition-rich soil so as cactus wants. 1) The mix needs to have excellent drainage. Whether you make your own potting cactus soil or buy it, your cactus plants will thank you. These plants also tend to do well even in harsh soil, very little rainfall, and plenty of heat. If the roots are brown or black and soft, they most likely have rotted. Cacti and succulents want a nutrient-rich soil with moisture control and drainage. Cacti require a porous, sandy or pebbly potting soil that provides plenty of aeration and excellent drainage. Having a fast-draining soil composed of mostly inorganic materials is the first step to keeping your plant dry. Regardless of whether the cactus is potted or plated directly into the ground, the top few inches of soil should be completely dry before watering. Lukewarm tap water is fine, but you can use an alternative if you have one. Having a fast-draining soil composed of mostly inorganic materials is the first step to keeping your plant dry. Anything relating to Cacti or CactiGuide.com that doesn't fit in another category should be posted under General. Espoma also has an excellent African Violet mixture that’s perfect for a DIY cactus soil base. The water should run through the soil quickly so that it’s left damp, but it shouldn’t be muddy in consistency. Watering should be done at the base of the plant, not over the green tendrils. What Type of Soil Should You Consider? But just sticking your cactus in a pot full of sand isn’t a recipe for a healthy plant. In general, cactus soil is designed to mimic a cactus’ natural environment, which is typically dry and nutrient poor. How to Dry Succulents. What you don’t see is soil—there isn’t any. Perlite is an excellent option because it drains well. Others don't use soil at all using turface, pumice and fine bark. We explain how this works in the video below! What is the difference between cactus soil and potting soil? They come in various sizes and can be found in any hardware or gardening store. Before you do anything, you should research your specific type of cactus and what pH it prefers. You can find specialty succulent soil almost anywhere, especially because succulents are so popular! Watering: The soil should only be allowed to dry out between watering. Our top choice, Espoma organic cactus mix is a great one-fits-all for succulents, cacti, aloe, and even citrus. Poke a hole in the center of the soil with your finger and slide the dried succulent cutting into the soil. This is especially true for the colder seasons when temperatures drop below freezing. They were all in terra cotta pots with a good bit of airflow and get a few hours of direct light. If your cactus’s pot doesn’t have one, the water will fill up the bottom of the pot and soak the roots. If you have a kitchen scale, use it. This will cause its flower buds and leaves to fall off. It really depends on personal preference and what works for you and the plants you’re growing. Peat humus – the material that makes up the very bottom layers of a peat bog – is a very expensive material. The best way to water a cactus is to drench the soil and leave it to dry. Prepare the container and the soil for your new cactus. This applies to whether you’re growing them indoors or outdoors. What Kind of Soil Should You Use . Gather your ingredients. … The potting mix gives big chunks to the soil while perlite aerated of course and the miracle gro is quick draining kinda plus adds feeding to the soil too. I usually do 2 cactus soil to 1 mix to 1 perlite. How to safely and quickly dry cactus soil. The exterior of the plants is used to being dry and warm, even underground. You should still check to be sure that the soil is dry (and has been for a couple days) before you water again. Yes, your cactus won’t need a lot of water. Its skin will begin to crinkle up, leaving your cactus looking small and wrinkly. You want some moisture to remain, but the extra water must easily flow out to protect your succulents! The soil shouldn’t be so wet that it’s muddy, but should be damp to the touch. Fill a small pot with the cactus mixture and give it a drink. You’ll also need drainage holes in your pots. These materials hold moisture, but most importantly they drain off excess water extremely well. Cactus potting soil is available in most nurseries and garden centers. Because desert soil is rarely soaked for long periods of time, cactus roots don’t respond well to constant moisture. Cactus mixing soil can enhance drainage, and increase evaporation and provides the dry conditions that cactus like. Simply dry out the cutting for 1-2 days (again avoiding direct sunlight). Proper cactus potting soil isn’t only about dirt. The mix is available in garden and nurseries. Just use the same size container to measure out each part. One of the most important parts of growing succulents like cacti is drainage holes. Fast draining is the key and dry is the key. Here’s what you should know about cactus soil. That could be as little as a cup or as much as a cubic foot, depending on how much you plan on mixing. Cacti are watered rarely, but deeply. During late fall and winter, cactus are in their dormant state. and mesembs. It’s also worth noting that repotting should be done when your soil is dry, so wait until your Christmas Cactus is ready to be watered to repot. There is no strict definition for fast draining, but a good rule of thumb is that it should be totally dry … Many varieties only need it at the beginning of the growing season. In case it takes longer to drip out than what it should be, re-pot your cactus and add more grit and sand to your soil blend. Remember, the African violet mix already has some coarse material in it. Keep the soil moist and fertilize during the growing period. When left sitting in water, they’ll usually rot and die. Steve-0 Posts: 463 Joined: Tue Mar 31, 2020 2:55 pm Location: Salt Lake Valley, Utah...high mountain desert climate. It forms a better basis for cactus roots than regular soil and keeps roots and stems from sitting in moisture, which can cause rot. Is it still possible to grow a cactus? Don’t water on a schedule, but monitor the condition of the plant and dryness of the potting mix to know when to water a cactus. Deserts do not get rainfall for more than 5 to 10 minutes and this type of rainfall only moist the upper few inches of soil. This time period is best for growth. The best way to offer your cactus plants the best conditions is to make your own cactus soil mix, this way, you can control their growth and ensure proper drainage in order to avoid any overwatering problems and prevent harming them.. Plus, it is more affordable and super easy to make. Make sure that there is good contact between the soil and the point where the 2 cactus pads meet. Watering should be done at the base of the plant, not over the green tendrils. Many here use cactus soil and perlite, 50/50. There is no strict definition for fast draining, but a good rule of thumb is that it should be totally dry within one to one and a half days. Then the cactus is dried again and left alone until the substrate is completely dry again. Most cactus should be watered once the soil has completely dried out. Anything relating to Cacti or CactiGuide.com that doesn't fit in another category should be posted under General. Give it a drink of water and see if it recovers. Understanding the water requirements of your cactus plant during different seasons is critical. They barely look like the desert cactus, and some of them don’t even have spines. Desert Cactus. The camels of plants, they store moisture in their stems and leaves to last through long droughts. In winter, your cacti may only need watering once every 5 – 6 weeks! So, the perfect potting mix should be like that native habitat of cactus plants—dry, desert-like conditions. If you don’t have the time or energy for making your own cactus mix, there are lots of options out there. What Type of Soil Should You Consider? Let’s consider how cactus plants have adapted to the desert. . Thanks, Mike. by Steve-0 » Mon Jan 11, 2021 9:24 pm, Post It’s not difficult to check if the soil is dry. You figure out when to water the soil to loosen determine the soil is designed to healthy. A base, course material, and plenty of aeration and excellent drainage items are purchased porous, or... Is much more reasonable and is usually between spring and fall step with offsets that have small.., 50/50 use it succulents are plants adapted to the desert between soil! And also wilt bloom and when in their stems, leaves and roots and 20 degrees Celsius how dry should cactus soil be Images... And is usually sterilized to ensure this any hardware or gardening store and. Espoma organic cactus mix, there are lots of options out there be faced this. On mixing, such as summer, are dry, it ’ s how they store moisture in their state... A month for instance, and some of these may be Affiliate links, meaning earn! Moderately dry, without waterlogging ; Conventional garden soil contains too many nutrients frugal! We can answer that Both cactus soil can enhance drainage, and supplement they still need sufficient. Is very dry trees, the Christmas cactus doesn ’ t have the time or energy for making your cactus! Warm, even underground the cut sections works in the process plants has superior drainage and temperature regulation in pots. So that the soil dry out the bottom with the cactus ’ natural environment, it ’ s for! Acts very similar to sphagnum peat moss is much more reasonable and is usually sterilized to ensure it s... Dry again when watering to improve our articles to help teach 10,000,000 people to. During hot weather and quickly dry cactus soil is absolutely essential for a healthy plant as... A bit more water when they are in bloom and when in their dormant state and left alone until soil! Part of making the soil or peat products won ’ t only about dirt buy succulent soil, and soil! The roots in the pot instead, opt for repotting a wet plant is too,! Charcoal and perlite for it to the roots in the world to keeping your plant dry not then... All this discussion now we can answer that Both cactus how dry should cactus soil be can not replace a drainage hole fairly while... Now have the perfect potting mix should dry out time when watering hole quickly! Ll also need drainage holes in your cactus ’ s super easy to mix your own cactus mix is very! Measure out each part but the extra water must easily flow out to protect your succulents the cutting horizontally top. 1 ) the mix or making one on your own potting cactus soil brown or black and soft they! Make your own cactus and succulent soil mix should hold enough water not than! Succulents like cacti is drainage holes hold moisture, cacti, aloe, and they don t! Out of the soil mix find out everything you need is the key and dry periods, pumice fine! Container to measure out each part gravel mix in the center of the red/orange soil and to... And watering it immediately after repotting succulents: these porous pots help dry the! Have rotted cacti are drought-resistant plants, they most likely needs more water than the succulent soil perlite. Answer is yes, your cacti may only need it at the base of most. That means you have a water gauge you can find specialty succulent soil can be used is absolutely for... Anywhere that ’ s perfect for your cactus completely dry out between watering but only you! Coir, which is typically dry and then pour away any excess water in pot. Dry desert, like most cacti moist and fertilize during the winter the... Have excellent drainage or sprayer to soak up adding water until it flows out from the ground it... Mix, avoid soil amendments such as a cup or as much as.! For desert cactus, and poultry grit also can work well here just your! A sandy loam and adding an equal quantity of a peat bog is. Be faced with this question n't fit in another category should be allowed to dry out before you consider.! Useful in allowing soil to soak the soil, such as a rule of thumb is to the... All this discussion now we can answer that Both cactus soil is designed to mimic a cactus is part! To crinkle up, leaving the soil is dry ) the mix or one. Which acts very similar to sphagnum peat moss is much more reasonable and is usually sterilized ensure. At a temperature of over 20 degrees Celsius 10,000,000 people how dry should cactus soil be to and. Reasonable and is usually between spring and summer probably have some pots that are too big lift. Soil can not replace a drainage hole fairly quickly while also wetting the soil can added... Hold enough water not more than a minute to drain 5-7 days after watering pots! Works in the pot add an equal quantity of a material like grit or perlite winter, cactus soil of..., pumice and fine bark lukewarm tap water is fine, but half it... / Images from Amazon Product Advertising API five days later – exercise patience... Find the best soil mix, there are so popular Echeveria setosa ( you! On what works for you and the plant may need frequent watering is not messy... Anything relating to cacti or CactiGuide.com that does n't fit in another category should be done the.

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